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Changes between Version 4 and Version 5 of TracEnvironment


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Mar 18, 2017, 3:45:33 PM (3 years ago)
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trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v4 v5  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
     8== Creating an Environment
     9
     10A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     11{{{#!sh
    912$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1013}}}
    1114
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     15`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
    1516
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system. Also, it seems that project names
    21 with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).''
     17=== Useful Tips
    2218
    23 == Database Connection Strings ==
     19 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    2420
    25 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    26 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    27 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    28 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    29 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    30 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     21 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     22 
     23 - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new Trac environment; otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
    3124
    32 === Embedded SQLite Connection String ===
    33 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     25 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     26 
     27 - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication, see [trac:#7163].
     28
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     30
     31== Database Connection Strings
     32
     33Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     34
     35Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     36
     37=== SQLite Connection String
     38
     39The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3440{{{
    3541sqlite:db/trac.db
    3642}}}
     43where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3744
    38 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    39 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    40 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    41 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    42 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     45=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     46
     47If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
    4348{{{
    4449postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4550}}}
    46 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    4751
    48 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     52If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    4953{{{
    5054postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5155}}}
    5256
    53 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    54 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     57On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5558{{{
    5659postgres://user:password@/database
    5760}}}
     61
    5862or a specific one:
    5963{{{
     
    6165}}}
    6266
    63 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    64 `trac-admin initenv`.
     67Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    6568
    6669See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    67 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    68 {{{
    69 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    70 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    71 }}}
    72 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    73 
    74 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    75 {{{
    76 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    77 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     70Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     71{{{#!sh
     72$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     73$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    7874}}}
    7975
    80 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     76When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     77
     78Under some default configurations (Debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     79{{{#!sh
     80$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     81$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     82}}}
     83
     84Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8185{{{
    8286postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    8387}}}
    8488
    85 === MySQL Connection String ===
     89=== MySQL Connection String
    8690
    87 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    88 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    89 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    90 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     91The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    9192{{{
    9293mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    9394}}}
    9495
    95 == Source Code Repository ==
     96== Source Code Repository
    9697
    97 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    98 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
     98Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
    9999
    100 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    101 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
     100In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     101You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded:
     102{{{#!ini
     103[components]
     104trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     105}}}
    102106
    103 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    104 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    105 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    106 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     107For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    107108
    108 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
    109 {{{
     109Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     110{{{#!ini
    110111[trac]
    111112repository_type = svn
     
    114115
    115116The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    116 {{{
     117{{{#!ini
    117118[trac]
    118119repository_type = svn
     
    120121}}}
    121122
    122 == Directory Structure ==
     123== Directory Structure
    123124
    124125An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
    125126
    126127 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    127  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    128  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     128 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     129 * `files`
     130  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    129131 * `conf`
    130    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     132  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
    131133 * `db`
    132    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    133  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    134  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    135  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs, since [milestone:0.10])
    136  * `templates` - Custom ClearSilver environment-specific templates. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    137    * `site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.
    138    * `site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.
    139    * `site_header.cs` - Custom page header.
    140  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    141    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    142  * `wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [WikiMacros Wiki macros]. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
     134  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     135 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     136 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     137 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     138 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     139  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    143140
    144   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    145 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    146 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     141=== Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
     142
     143This is a common beginners' mistake.
     144It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
    147145
    148146----